Per the Oxford Dictionary, identity is referred to as how one describes the ‘self’ and the characteristics that further defines us as people. A dancer’s identity can be best explained by the social identity theory, as the theory focuses on the ways individuals perceive and categorise themselves, based upon their social and personal identities (Jacobson, 2003). There are many worldwide perceptions on what it means to be a dancer, as well as how they should look and while dance can be an embodiment of one’s free expression, it can also be a categorization of one’s gender, size, age, sexuality etc. For example, many men in dance struggle to be accepted due to the multiple reflections on “society’s acceptance and rejection of different expressions of femininity and masculinity” (Yamanashi & Bulman, 2009).
Identity as a ballet dancer is punctured with commitment, self-sacrifice, physical and emotional pain and suffering as suggested by Pickard (2002). Certain genres of dance such as ballet, pole and jazz are subject to sexualization due to the nature of the costumes they are expected to wear. For many women in dance, wearing a beautifully decorated costume and stepping out on to a stage can be empowering, the “beauty of the female body is manifested to express eroticism, which is culminated by body exposure, body consciousness, use of illuminating or see-through material or colourful trimming” (Mi-Young, 2006). Furthermore, when considering the concept of identity within dance, Langdon and Petracca (2010) discovered how dancers can be associated with obsessive body image and warned professionals in the industry to be aware of the negative aspects of identity and to encourage positive body perception when working alongside dancers, as they can be at risk of developing an eating disorder (ED).
The Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) claims that women are often sexually objectified in some cultures which results in state self-objectification and trait self-objectification. From this, Tiggemann and Slater (2001) found that classical ballet students scored higher on self-objectification, self-surveillance and disordered eating, when compared to psychology students.
As differences in clothing can be seen within different styles of dance, the prevalence of EDs can differ too. Anshel (2004) found that ballet dancers were more at risk of developing EDs as they are concerned about how much they weigh, leading to body dissatisfaction and perfectionism. This is because there is a huge pressure for dancers to perform well as well as looking the part, can lead to further self-surveillance and to achieve this, weight control is a focus of theirs. For example, the desire of having the ideal body is seen in ballet schools where dancers are overconcerned about their performance and so focus on details such as weight, hair and teeth to reach the ‘artistic look’ (Ravaldi et al., 2016).
A young female dancer comments on how she ties her identity to dance “I view my body in a really toxic light. I think if I wasn’t a creative and I didn’t have this type of pressure to look good all the time, I would certainly still have insecurities but not to the extent I do now. I see the women getting booked for jobs, I see the briefs for castings, but I don’t see people like me, size 12, chubby etc. So I have actually gone on a fitness journey to change that and mould into the person I feel like I ‘need’ to be, which is another thing that I need to unlearn. I don’t need to change for no one – especially not for an industry or society norms, I should change for me.”
This demonstrates the awareness of how aesthetics can really influence identity and personal consequences. However, it is important to note that not every dancer will have an ED, but they are at more risk due to the type of sport it is, the industry being female-dominant and perfectionism (Trigg, 1978). Alternative research as found that some dancers actually have a positive self-esteem, great fitness benefits and encouraged healthy eating (Kalliopuska, 1989; Tiggemann & Zaccardo, 2015).
The role of a psychotherapist is becoming more and more relevant to the world of not only the sport of Dance, but many other sports. If you would like to learn more about how you could one day work within sport as a psychotherapist, a psychological wellbeing officer, or would simply like to learn more about how they work, Click here to be taken to the Introduction to Sports Psychotherapy – Online Course. Or Click here to be taken to the Certificate in Psychological Wellbeing in Sports.
There are many ways in which practitioners can treat individuals with EDs and to help restore a sense of self and identity. For example, a clinical psychologist may use Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) as a way of challenging an individual’s thought patterns and encourage cognitive restructuring, to relieve the pressure of perfectionistic traits and low self-esteem (Murphy et al., 2010). Within CBT, particularly Enhanced CBT, there is a focus on changes to behaviour to change the way in which the individual thinks, as opposed to just cognitive restructuring. Firstly, discussions and plans are put in place to prepare the individual for the treatment and whether they are motivated to engage in this.
Therefore, it is crucial to identify any factors that may discourage an individual to fully engage with the treatment. During this stage it is important that the individual feels empowered and in control of the situation as they may feel more involved and hopeful. Self-awareness is also highlighted, so behaviours and thinking patterns are identified. Next, establishing regular eating is considered through planning meals and snacks. After this, identifying significant others who can play apart in helping the individual to recover and highlighting the mechanisms of the onset of the ED. To specifically tackle the perfectionistic traits, the therapist would collaboratively work with the individual to focus on non-performance and other domains of life that are more important.
Alternatively, a psychotherapist may use interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) where there is an emphasis on interpersonal dysfunctions, whether that’s communication and/or relationships with significant others (McIntosh et al., 2010). The goal is to improve interpersonal functionality and so issues are explored deeper as things such as interpersonal problems and self-doubts may be presented which are shadowed by the preoccupation of weight and eating. Whilst there is limited research on dancers specifically, this implies that dancers may face a lot of self-doubt within the industry and so they cope through eating – though this needs to be further researched. When delivering IPT, there is constant review of the links between the symptoms of the ED and the interpersonal issue. From this the individual and therapist discuss how the cope with the issue at hand healthily. Therefore, within therapy links will be made between the interpersonal issues and the EDs which will be explored during sessions.
Within this article, issues of identity and EDs were highlighted and how different psychologists and psychotherapists may tackle this. However, there are many different ways in which practitioners can approach this, as there are many other frameworks developed from different philosophies and theories.
By Manisha Aggarwal
LinkedIn – Manisha Aggarwal
Murphy, R., Straebler, S., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C. G. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders. The psychiatric clinics of North America, 33(3), 611.
McIntosh, V. V., Bulik, C. M., McKenzie, J. M., Luty, S. E., & Jordan, J. (2000). Interpersonal psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 27(2), 125-139.
Anshel, M. H. (2004). Sources of disordered eating patterns between ballet dancers and non-dancers. Journal of sport behavior, 27(2), 115.
Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T. A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of women quarterly, 21(2), 173-206.
Kalliopuska, M. (1989). Empathy, self-esteem and creativity among junior ballet dancers. Perceptual and motor skills, 69(3_suppl), 1227-1234.
Ravaldi, C., Vannacci, A., Bolognesi, E., Mancini, S., Faravelli, C., & Ricca, V. (2006). Gender role, eating disorder symptoms, and body image concern in ballet dancers. Journal of psychosomatic research, 61(4), 529-535.
Tiggemann, M., & Slater, A. (2001). A test of objectification theory in former dancers and non-dancers. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25(1), 57-64.
Tiggemann, M., & Zaccardo, M. (2015). “Exercise to be fit, not skinny”: The effect of fitspiration imagery on women’s body image. Body image, 15, 61-67.
Trigg, M. G. (1978). The effects of varying amounts of creative modern dance activities on creative-thinking ability and self-concept (Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Greensboro).
Yamanashi Leib A, Bulman RC. The Choreography of Gender: Masculinity, Femininity, and the Complex Dance of Identity in the Ballroom. Men and Masculinities. 2009;11(5):602-621. doi:10.1177/1097184X07306730
Jacobson, B. (2003). The Social Theory of the Creation of a Sports Fan Identity: A Theoretical Review of the Literature
Pickard, A. (2012). Schooling the dancer: the evolution of an identity as a ballet dancer. Research in Dance Education, 13:1, 25-46, DOI:10.1080/14647893.2011.65119.
Mi-Young, K (2006). A Study on Formative and Aesthetic Characteristics of the Costume of Dance Sports
Langdon, S. & Petracca, G. (2010). Tiny dancer: Body image and dancer identity in female modern dancers. Body Image, 7, 360.363
The prevalence of technology in fitness has been incredibly rapid. This is what makes studying how it impacts our psychological health so invaluable. Fitness trackers such as watches are used by athletes of all levels.
These devices utilise biological feedback such as heart rate in addition to movement to provide users with insight into their health (Wright and Keith, 2014). Those just getting into fitness love these devices as they provide quantitative feedback into how they are progressing towards their goals. Moreover, having this constant recall and reflection about daily activity (and inactivity time) has been thought to promote positive behaviour change over a prolonged period of time (Stagier et al, 2016).
However, there are growing concerns over the negative psychological impacts of using fitness trackers. Research suggests that some individuals appear to become obsessed over the data and numbers, which may not always be accurate, but lead to negative long-term psychological effects (Blackstone and Hermann, 2020).
Blackstone and Hermann (2020) asked university students to report on their experience with their fitness trackers, 70% of the students reported engaging in certain compensatory behaviours to reach a step goal while 50% reported doing compensatory behaviours to reach a caloric goal. Experiencing these maladaptive patterns as a result of fitness trackers in combination with increased internal stress also removes one of the principal purposes of doing exercise, which is to feel good internally and externally. Compensatory behaviours observed in these students involves increasing exercise the next day as well as decreasing food intake.
This finding was also observed in a study involving 200 women (Duus and Cooray, 2017). This internal pressure to reach daily targets was so prevalent, that many reported that their ‘daily routines were controlled by their watch’. Additionally, participants felt internal pressure due to worrying about what others would think about their run when they uploaded it to various platforms, and in turn, finding exercising less enjoyable. Concurrently, if they did not have their watch on, they felt like it ‘didn’t count’ or just felt less motivated in general.
Experiencing these maladaptive patterns as a result of fitness trackers in combination with increased internal stress also removes one of the principal purposes of doing exercise, which is to feel good internally and externally. Compensatory behaviours observed in these students involves increasing exercise the next day as well as decreasing food intake.
These studies highlight a critical problem with fitness trackers in the sense that there are addictive. We get attached to the numbers and to what others think, but forget about the whole purpose of why we exercise in the first place. Intentionally changing routes to accumulate more steps, or eating less because we didn’t quite manage to hit our daily goal, seems a bit ridiculous when one really reflects on it.
Throughout the Introduction to Sports Psychotherapy – Online course, you can learn how important issues around identity can be impacted due to addictive behaviours, however positive they may seem.
Access the Introduction to Sports Psychotherapy – Online course by clicking here.
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In addition to these studies, I conducted my own survey on Instagram asking my followers about their own personal relationships with their fitness trackers. Whereas a lot of people reported how they were motivating, great for tracking progress and seeing what others do, a lot of people reported that they had detrimental effect to their mental health (see images below).
One answer I would particularly like to highlight is the individual who says they feels like the tracker is great during her ‘hard block’ of training; but hates it during the ‘off season’. This again highlights this dependency to receiving positive feedback from the tracker instead of being active for our own health/goals. It also suggests that we may be using them as a comparison, and when we do more than others, we feel better about it. However, research on this is yet to be done, thus no conclusions can be drawn from this.
In conclusion, fitness trackers provide users with awareness of what is going on inside their bodies, however they may not always have positive outcomes. Findings suggest that some individuals create a dependency to their fitness trackers that result in executing compensatory behaviours. Moreover, this may lead to creating a negative relationship with exercise in the long run as well as negative impacting the individual psychologically. Although fitness trackers are not inherently bad, and lay actually be really valuable to certain athletes, this all depends how they are used and critically, on individual differences.
By Anne-Sophie Pierre – @annesophie.pierre
30th November 2021
- Blackstone, S. R., & Herrmann, L. K. (2020). Fitness wearables and exercise dependence in college women: considerations for university health education specialists. American Journal of Health Education, 51(4), 225-233.
- Duus, R., Cooray, M., & Page, N. (2017). Agentic technology: The impact of activity trackers on user behavior. In Creating marketing magic and innovative future marketing trends (pp. 315-322). Springer, Cham.
- Stragier, J., Abeele, M. V., Mechant, P., & De Marez, L. (2016). Understanding persistence in the use of online fitness communities: comparing novice and experienced users. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 34-42.
- Wright, R., & Keith, L. (2014). Wearable technology: If the tech fits, wear it. Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 11(4), 204-216.
Sports psychotherapy and sport psychology can work in unison to improve the outcomes for athletes.
The role of the mind in either facilitating or hindering performance in sport has been well documented since the turn of the century. Popular streaming services like Amazon and Netflix have each released documentaries like Andy Murray: Resurfacing and Untold: Breaking Point, detailing the mental battles athletes face during their careers. Further to this point, many coaching related courses in the United Kingdom have introduced sport psychology modules for the future cohorts of coaches to engage with. Mental skills training is now seen as integral to the development of a coach’s philosophy. As a hopeful Sport and Exercise Psychologist, it is a question I ask dauntingly: Will there be as much need for Sport and Exercise Psychologists in the future?
The differences between sports psychotherapy and sport psychology are covered as part of the “Introduction to Sports Psychotherapy” online course delivered by Sports Psychotherapy Academy which is now available to enrol onto. Click here if you would like to gain more information.
Could the future landscape of player care in sport could see the merging of the two cousin disciplines? Not all athletes issues come on the pitch/track, often it is their performance that is impacted due to issues away from their sport. A key tenant of the use of Psychotherapy within Sport is to develop the person first and the athlete second. (Martens, 1987; Campbell et al, 2021). With athletes occupying a plethora of roles distinct from their role as an athlete, the amount of pressure socially and professionally linked to them is astronomical.
Due to these pressures and the many more challenges athletes face. It is clear that psychological support is needed for individuals. Nesti (2004) expressed that it is common for younger athletes to have not yet developed the repertoire to express how they are feeling. Therefore, individuals must be emotionally literate for them to best utilise the benefits of talking therapy (Psychotherapy).
For those individuals who are not emotionally literate, the addition of sport psychology educational sessions within an academy environment, will help the ability for individuals to better understand more about psychological principles. Allowing them then to fully benefit from the use of a working psychotherapist within their sporting environment. There is an agelong argument first brought to light by Greenspan and Feltz (1989) that professional athletes already possess the mental skills which has enabled them to separate themselves from amateur level athletes. If this is true, then surely practitioners’ efforts should lie away from training mental skills when consulting athletes at the top of their game.
A recent report revealed that Olympic and Paralympic sports, excluding sports like football and rugby union, contributed £25 billion to the UK economy for the year 2017, the greatest ever figure (Sport Industry Research Centre, 2021). The financial pressure sports teams endure can be diffused onto their athletes as there is a lot riding on their success. Sports organisations can help ensure that athletes’ varied needs are attended to by bringing a sport psychotherapist on board (Bloom, 2021).
The acceptance of psychological principles is covered across the footballing hierarchy with the notoriety of the four-pillar model: Tactical, Technical, Psychological, Physical. However, educating individuals on psychological theory, and applying the workings of a Sport Psychologist may be the first step in what else can be achieved. In order to better equip players, coaches, parents and other key stakeholders in higher psychological awareness, more can be done.
By implementing the work of a Psychotherapist with experience of the workings within sport, understand that the impact and support that can be achieved and offered through education and available professional services can enable athletes and individuals a greater ability to manage the challenges and difficulties they may face when entering a professional sporting environment, whether that be on the pitch or off the pitch.
It is practitioners’ responsibilities to decide where to draw the line when it comes to how best their competencies can help individuals. Those in a helping profession are morally obliged to provide a duty of care to the highest possible standard. Dealing with problems which practitioners are not well versed in risks endangering the athlete. To avoid this occupational hazard, sporting organisations should look to harness the capabilities of both Sport and Exercise Psychologists and Psychotherapists to work in collaboration so that the correct referrals can be made if necessary.
By – John-Paul Kerfoot
Twitter – @jp_kerfoot
24th November 2021
- Bloom, G. (2021). Taking psychotherapy into sport—A clinical perspective. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research.
- Campbell, N., Brady, A., & Tincknell-Smith, A. (2021). Developing and Supporting Athlete Wellbeing: Person First, Athlete Second. Routledge.
- Greenspan, M. J., & Feltz, D. L. (1989). Psychological interventions with athletes in competitive situations: A review. The sport psychologist, 3(3), 219-236.
- Martens, R. (1987). Science, knowledge, and sport psychology. The sport psychologist, 1(1), 29-55.
- Nesti, M. (2004). Existential psychology and sport: Theory and application. Routledge.
- Sport Industry Research Centre. (2021). The Economic Importance of Olympic and Paralympic Sports, an update (2017). https://www.uksport.gov.uk/-/media/files/investment/uk-sport—olympic-and-paralympic-sports-satellite-account-2017.ashx
Women having the ability to take control of their images via social media is a crucial step in creating more positive role models for young girls.
In today’s world, being a professional athlete includes more than being at the top 1% of the sport. Athletes are facing demand to provide frequent and personal information on various social media platforms (Hayes et al, 2020).
In turn, by doing so, athletes are more likely to receive sponsorships, greater salaries as well as experience an easier career transition out of sport (Aria et al, 2014). However, social media can be incredibly distracting, including negative messages and sponsorship pressures, all of which may negatively impact an athlete’s performance.
Results from a study on the National Football League (NFL), showed that there was a negative relationship between posting frequency on social media and performance (Lim et al, 2020). In other words, as social media frequency increased, the footballers performance decreased. Concurrently, findings were replicated by another study on tennis players, whereby high twitter usage impacted performance during a match.
Encel et al (2017) analysed the facebook usage prior to, during and following competitions for over 290 athletes of varying levels. Results exhibited that time spent on Facebook prior to a competition significantly correlated with disruption and distraction during competition.
Social media should however not be completely dismissed. It has also opened the door for athletes to take control over their representation in the media. This is particularly important for female athletes, who can rewrite what it means to be a female athlete. Research indicates that not only are women under-represented across traditional and online media outlets, but when they are represented, the focus is on their femininity and sexuality rather than their athletic achievements (Kane, 2013).
The role and influence social media plays and how to successfully manage the media is covered within the “Introduction to Sports Psychotherapy” Online Course which is available for purchase now.
Click here to find out more and purchase for only £59.99.
Social media however may enable women to address this traditional lack of coverage as well as challenge and change the way they are portrayed, which is usually in a sexualised manner (Litchfield & Kavanagh, 2019). Reichart et al (2015) ran an Instagram analysis and found that females accounted for the majority of the active sport photographs, which suggests that when given control, female athletes contest the trend of visual representations found in the media, and present themselves as athletes first, females second.
Krane et al (2011) found that preadolescent girls preferred images of women presented as competent athletes as it evoked feelings of admiration. These findings highight those young girls look up to sportswomen as role models, therefore women having the ability to take control of their images via social media is a crucial step in creating more positive role models for young girls.
However, not all research supports this claim. Coche (2012) analysed the Twitter profiles of 38 male and 41 female athletes and found that women actually preserve traditional gender roles in sports found in traditional media. Although women presented themselves as athletes through their biographies, women highlighted their femininity in their photographs. The opposite was found for male athletes. Serena Williams is a perfect example of this. She is one of the best tennis players, but her profile picture highlights femininity rather than athletic talent. This highlights her looks, which may entice some fans, however research shows that this fails to engage women in sport.
Social media has incredibly positive aspects for athletes, allowing them to interact with fans, gain sponsorships and also it enables them to take control of their image. However, research does indicate that social media can have detrimental impacts on an athlete’s performance during competition. Athletes should consider the time and frequency of their social media usage to gain the benefits and avoid a decline in performance.
By Anne-Sophie Pierre – @annesophie.pierre
29th October, 2021
- Arai, A., Ko, Y. J., & Ross, S. (2014). Branding athletes: Exploration and conceptualization of athlete brand image. Sport Management Review, 17(2), 97-106.
- Coche, R. (2017). How athletes frame themselves on social media: An analysis of Twitter profiles. Journal of sports media, 12(1), 89-112.
- Encel, K., Mesagno, C., & Brown, H. (2017). Facebook use and its relationship with sport anxiety. Journal of sports sciences, 35(8), 756-761.
- Hayes, M., Filo, K., Geurin, A., & Riot, C. (2020). An exploration of the distractions inherent to social media use among athletes. Sport Management Review, 23(5), 852-868.
- Gruettner, A., Vitisvorakarn, M., Wambsganss, T., Rietsche, R., & Back, A. (2020, January). The New Window to Athletes’ Soul–What Social Media Tells Us About Athletes’ Performances. In Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Lim, J. H., Donovan, L. A., Kaufman, P., & Ishida, C. (2020). Professional Athletes’ Social Media Use and Player Performance: Evidence From the National Football League. International Journal of Sport Communication, 14(1), 33-59.
- Smith, L. R., & Sanderson, J. (2015). I’m going to Instagram it! An analysis of athlete self-presentation on Instagram. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 59(2), 342-358.
- Toffoletti, K., & Thorpe, H. (2018). Female athletes’ self-representation on social media: A feminist analysis of neoliberal marketing strategies in “economies of visibility”. Feminism & Psychology, 28(1), 11-31.
Engaging in sports is a great way to manage stress and have fun! But at what point does sport become the stressor?
Is it the influence of external factors? Perhaps early training to make it in sport? The root of this is unknown but what we do know is that the awareness of mental health is increasing within the sports sector, and so does the need for the funding for support.
In a survey funded by Dance UK, it was found that over half of 658 respondents experience external stress, general anxiety and tension with others (Laws, 2005). It was also found that 84% of contemporary dancers experienced at least one injury in 12 months. Some perceived the causes to be down to being overworked and fatigue. However, 44% have no access to psychological support. This demonstrates a need for funding to address these issues so the appropriate support is provided to dancers, to prevent severe injury and psychological distress.
Lack of funding within sport is a topic featured within the Introduction to Sports Psychotherapy course which is available for purchase on October 29th. If you’d like to find out more about how the lack of funding can impact the psychological well-being of sportsmen and women within the world of Dance and other sports, click here to find out more.
We can only assume that the lack of funding can be due to different reasons. Firstly, the stigma in disclosing injuries within the dance industry is apparent (Vassallo et al., 2019). Research has found that some dancers fear telling their employers that they are injured as it can result in losing professional work. Therefore, dancers may feel like they cannot reach out for support which suggests that this can be seen when asking for emotional support. As a result, dancers may feel that they cannot approach teachers, parents, choreographers about any issues due to the stigma that is seen within the industry.
Secondly, the appreciation of seeing dance as a sport and dancers as athletes is absent (Guarino, 2015). Whilst there is overlap between sport and the performing arts, dancers are ultimately creative athletes who have similar physical demands, but with an element of subjectivity. Let’s take football as an example. Both sports are competitive, they both have a need to be physically fit to execute skills and they both serve a purpose to entertain viewers.
Dancers are seen at concerts, films, music videos, theatres. Dance is seen everywhere even if it may not be obvious. At a more amateur level, of course anyone can dance, all you have to do is stick some music on and move! Equally, in football finding some grass and kicking a ball. Understanding the hard work both physically and mentally that dancers engage in to become professional, needs further awareness which could perhaps lead to its appreciation of it being a sport.
Not only does dance provide entertainment, but it also makes us feel good! Dance can be used as a therapeutic tool, as practitioners are beginning to use dance movement psychotherapy (DMP). Cunningham (2014) found that infertile couples benefited from DMP as they felt connected with others when moving as it created social and emotional bonds, particularly when they felt isolated.
Dance serves many different purposes and yet the government have cut arts courses by 50% which can have a huge impact (Guardian, 2021). This can increase competitiveness of dance, but also limits the resources available for DMP. Community Dance Artist, Jennifer Hale, shares her thoughts:
‘It just shows an astounding unawareness of what a basic building block they play in all our lives and the makeup of society. When we went into lockdown, many people turned to art in some form to help support them through, dispel fears, say what was on their minds or just play, proving that it is needed now more than ever – both professionally and within the community’.
Funding is needed to allow dancers to access the mental health resources available whether that’s in dance schools or private practitioners who can draw on similar experiences. Furthermore, the funding for anyone who may engage with DMP who can find great benefit in movement.
- Vassallo, A. J., Pappas, E., Stamatakis, E., & Hiller, C. E. (2019). Injury fear, stigma, and reporting in professional dancers. Safety and health at work, 10(3), 260-264.
- Guarino, L. (2015). Is dance a sport?: A twenty-first-century debate. Journal of Dance Education, 15(2), 77-80.
- Cunningham, J. (2014). Potential benefits of dance movement psychotherapy with couples experiencing infertility. Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy, 9(4), 237-252.
- Laws, H. & Apps, J. (2005). Fit to Dance 2: Report of the second national inquiry into dancers’ health and injury in the UK. Dance UK.
22nd October, 2021
Sunderland manager Lee Johnson on the highly addictive and destructive substance affecting the mental well-being of his players.
Sunderland manager Lee Johnson has been speaking in relation to his thoughts on how addictive substances are being used and abused by not only his players but across the English Football League and in Europe.
Originally coming from Sweden, ‘Snus’ is an oral tobacco product which is similar to the packaging used when distributing teabag’s. It is made from pulverised or ground leaves and is directly consumed by placing the substance under the top lip in one’s mouth.
Snus is not currently considered an illegal substance, however the UK and European Union banned the ability to sell the substance back in 1992. Sweden remain one country whereby it is still legal to sell and distribute the commodity.
The matter of consuming the substance is harmful and impacts individuals at the professional level of sport, Johnson continued by expressing how it can affect both a players’ physical health and mental well-being.
“I have not tried it myself, but having spoken to the players, the worry for me is it is so highly addictive,” Johnson told talkSPORT.
“I have had players who are so highly addicted that they are in hospital overnight with something else, maybe an operation, and are begging the doctors and nurses to get them a tub – or otherwise they say they are going to run out of bed and get (it) themselves when they have just had a knee operation.
“It is so highly addictive that it comes to the forefront of our minds which then becomes dangerous.”
Sport is considered to be problematic when considering addictive behaviours due to the competitive mindset that it fosters amongst those competing for places within a team environment, or individuals trying to gain an advantage to better those they are competing against.
The use of ‘Snus’ is considered as well as the impact of hidden addictive behaviours such as gambling and gaming within our ‘Introduction to Sports Psychotherapy’ online course.
More on the matters Lee Johnson has spoken about with regards to ‘Snus’ and how it’s consumption can have implications on his players can be found within Module 4, available now for pre-order (Released October 29th).
Although it may seem that this immediate high combined with a lasting calming effect for a performance enhancing composed feeling in-game. The medical findings make for grim reading.
The use of snus has been associated with adverse health outcomes such as obesity (Norberg et al., 2006), the development of type 2-diabetes (Carlsson et al., 2017), experiences of heart failure after pro-longed use (Arefalk et al., 2012), and oesophageal and rectal cancer (Araghi et al., 2017).
“You are messing with the balance of the body and mind, that is the biggest thing for me in terms of development. You will find that some players have two or three ‘snus’ sachets under their lip, but then they are taking caffeine tablets, so it is giving themselves that calming effect.
(With) so many spikes in the body, sort of balance if you like, I don’t believe it is conducive to top performance, but more important it is not conducive to the player being healthy for a long period of time.
I see how many players are actually on it – you could probably go to maybe a third or half of a dressing room. I think they are uneducated on the negatives towards it.”
Education on the impact substances and addictive behaviours can have within sport is crucial to not only professional sportsmen and women across a variety of sports, but also the next generation coming through Football academies, Dance academies and individuals involved in sport through academia.
Ensuring that individuals are aware of the negative impact that substance abuse in the form of legal high’s such as ‘Snus’ can have on an individual’s physical and mental health is the best way to ensure use of highly addictive and destructive legal substances is reduced and eventually eradicated from the world of sport.
- Araghi, M., Galanti, M. R., Lundberg, M., Liu, Z., Ye, W., Lager, A., … & Magnusson, C. (2017). Smokeless tobacco (snus) use and colorectal cancer incidence and survival: Results from nine pooled cohorts. Scandinavian journal of public health, 45(8), 741-748.
- Arefalk, G., Hergens, M. P., Ingelsson, E., Ärnlöv, J., Michaelsson, K., Lind, L., … & Sundström, J. (2012). Smokeless tobacco (snus) and risk of heart failure: results from two Swedish cohorts. European journal of preventive cardiology, 19(5), 1120-1127.
- Carlsson, S., Andersson, T., Araghi, M., Galanti, R., Lager, A., Lundberg, M., … & Magnusson, C. (2017). Smokeless tobacco (snus) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes: results from five pooled cohorts. Journal of internal medicine, 281(4), 398-406.
- Norberg, M., Stenlund, H., Lindahl, B., Boman, K., & Weinehall, L. (2006). Contribution of Swedish moist snuff to the metabolic syndrome: a wolf in sheep’s clothing?. Scandinavian journal of public health, 34(6), 576-583.
By Dan Rimmer
11th October, 2021